Technically? It is possible to go to the end of the universe (there is such a thing). But in reality, it depends on the laser pointer. Nowadays, some "laser indicators" outside China are so powerful that they look like lightsabers, dust particles scattered in the atmosphere, as you can see. Most laser pointers produce milliwatts of power, which is great for driving miles if it is very collimated.
Collimation is a measure of how much the beam is amplified over a given distance, while inexpensive laser pointers are generally not well collimated, although this is rapidly changing. So this is really not a question of how far they can go, but whether you can identify a light spot, depending on what direction you see and as much as anything else.
If you are a few miles away, someone points your way to a high power laser pointer and happens to aim at your eyes, you will definitely see it. But if the pointer points to the wall next to you, then you won't know where it is.
So, I think you can buy a laser pointer to check.